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WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS TO BE MEMORIZED - Тематический план издательства «Высшая школа» (вузы и техникумы) на...


^ WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS TO BE MEMORIZED
propose (v) particular (a) mystery (n)

notorious (a) account (for) (v) twins (n)

bring out (v) discrepancy (n)

grief (n) remind (of) (v)

drown (v) heart-breaking (a)

to mean no harm

to speak with rapture

to be all the rage

to put one's whole mind

. something

to make a noise

on

to get a matter straight

to corne to life

to reveal a secret

to take pains

to take a look (at) [54]
EXERCISES
I. Explain and expand on the following:

1. Indeed, my powers seemed a bit under a cloud.

2. -I had the Unabridged, and I was ciphering around in the back end, hoping I might tree her among the pictures.

3. It has often been said, and by people who would not flatter and who could have no inducement to flatter, that I am quite remarkable in that way.

4. Will you let me ask you certain questions calculated to bring out the salient points of your public and private history?

5. This solemn, this awful mystery has cast a gloom over my whole life.

6. Well, I believe I have got material enough for the present, and I am very much obliged to you for the pains you have taken.

II. Paraphrase the following sentences from the text:

1. I was not feeling bright that morning.

2. . . . they always speak of it with raptur.

3. ... it is the custom, now, to interview any man who has become notorious.

4. It is all the rage now.

5. This is a great grief to me.

6. / will put my whole mind on it.

7. . . . we can never get this matter straight.

8. How do you account for that?

9. . . . you make yourself out to be one hundred and eighty.

10. Many a time it has seemed to me like a discrepancy.

11. ...I couldn't make up my mind.

12. I would give whole worlds to know.

13. ...I will tell you a secret now, which I never have revealed to any creature before.

III. Give corresponding colloquial variants for the following:

1. They could have no inducement to flatter... 2. This solemn, . . . mystery has cast a gloom over my whole life. 3. Then the young man reverently withdrew.

IV. Paraphrase the following sentences using word combinations from the text:

1. The young man worked for one of the evening newspapers.

2. I felt that my capacities were a bit dulled.

3. I could not make out his hand and had to apply for help.

4. This colour is very fashionable now.

5. The matter will hardly be cleared up.

6. It always takes one a long time to come to a decision.

7. Thank you for the trouble you have taken. [55]

8. I promise that I won't betray your confidence and won't let oat what you told me.

9. Although he worked perseveringly he could not decipher the manuscript.

10. In a few minutes she recovered consciousness.

11. His account of the event sounded most discouraging.

12. There was considerable contradiction between the two, accounts of the interview.

13. He expressed his delight at her singing.

14. You praise me much more than I deserve it.

V. Give definitions of the following words using an English-English dictionary:

inducement, discrepancy notorious, disheartening, salient cipher, bring out, account for

VI. Translate the following into Russian:

1. Hoping it's no harm... 2. Indeed, my powers seemed a bit un­der a cloud. 3. I had the Unabridged, and I was ciphering around in the back end, hoping I might tree her among the pictures. 4. It has often been said, and by people who would not flatter and who could have no inducement to flatter, that I am quite remarkable in that way. 5. I had not heard of it before. It must be very interesting. 6. Will you let me ask you certain questions calculated to bring out the sa­lient points of your public and private history? 7. If you were at his funeral, he must have been dead; and if he was dead, how could he care whether you made a noise or not? 8. Anyway I don't see how they could ever have been such a blundering lot as to go and bury the wrong child.

VII. Give English equivalents for the following:

стараться, прилагать усилия; принять peшение; выяснить;говорить с восторгом; быть модным;объяснять что-либо; раскрыть секрет; шуметь;напоминать кому-либо о чем-либо; льстить; пользующийся дурной славой; душераздирающий; приходить в себя; взглянуть.

Make up short dialogues around these words and word combina­tions.

VIII. Use one of the verbs of feeling and perception in the Contin­uous form.

Pattern your own sentences after this one: "I was not feeling bright that morning".

IX. Make up two-line dialogues patterned on those below.

Each dia­logue should begin with an elliptical question,

1. — Doing anything to-night?

— No, why?

2. — Finished your work?

— Almost.

3. — Hurt yourself?

— I'm afraid I have.

4. — Seen anything of Bob?

— Not much.

5. — Going anywhere to-morrow night? — To the theatre.

X. Fill in the missing parts of the dialogues (use elliptical questions). 1 -....?

1.- ...?

— To the post-office. 2. — ...?

— No, why?

3. -...?

— No, I'm not.

4. —...?

— Just a little tired.

5. ...?

6. -...?

— Not I.

XI. Respond to the following questions according to the model.

Model: 1. — He reminds me of your brother.

— Reminds you of who? 2. — I suppose you don't mind my presence.

— Mind what?

1. Why make such a noise? 2. Hoping it's no harm, I've come with­out warning. 3. I don't think we can get this matter straight. 4. How do you account for her absence? 5. I suppose you never could have met him.

XII. Disagree with the suggested statements. Use the formulas of disagreement given in the models below. Models:

You knew he was dead.

I don't see that there is any mystery about it.

No, we didn't.

Yes, I do. Well, I do. But I do.

1. They have troubles enough without adding this. 2. The family can hear of it here. 3. You haven't taken any pains to do it. 4. I have got material enough for the present. [57]

XIII. Make the following sentences emphatic by using the verb "to do".

Model: She sings very well.

She does sing very well.

1. You notice a thing very quickly. 2. She looked very intelligent. 3. She spoke of the book with rapture. 4. It seems curious that they should be friends. 5. He asked you again and again to make less noise.

XIV. Refer the following statements to the past.

Model: It must be very interesting.

It must have been very interesting.

1. You must be tired after a day's work. 2. She must be feeling very awkward here. 3. He must be very pleasant company. 4. He must have a very bad memory to forget such essential things. 5. It must be all the rage now. 6. He must be a bit under a cloud.

XV. Respond to the following statements. Use "must + perfect in­finitive" to express possibility referring to the past.

Model: We didn't know how to account for his extraordinary

behaviour. He must've been very nervous.

1. Everyone took him to be no more than thirty-five. 2. He was a great deal interested in the story. 3. He took great pains to interest his guest. 4. The young man represented one of the newspapers. 5. He looked very nervous.

XVI. Paraphrase the sentences given below so as to use "could+perfect infinitive" to express doubt, incredulity.

1. It is next to impossible that they ever met.

2. I refuse to believe that you really took any pains to complete the work.

3. Is it possible that such a thing was suggested?

4. Is it at all possible that he spoke of it with rapture?

5. Is it impossible that he spoke of it with rapture?

6. Is it possible that they took him to be thirty?

XVII. Compose five tail questions as in the model.

Model: You couldn't have forgotten it, could you?

XVIII. Study the following sentence from the text. Explain the use of tense forms.

Make your own sentences using the Past Per­fect Continuous Tense.

However, I went to the bookcase, and when I had been looking six or seven minutes I found I was obliged to refer to the young man.

XIX. Complete the following sentences so as to use the Past Perfect Continuous Tense. [58]

1. I expected... 2. It seemed... 3. He said... 4. He wanted to see... 5. What made you think...

XX. Join the sentences given below so as to use the Subjective In­finitive Construction. Give as many variants as it is logically possible.

It happened It turned out It appeared It seemed

They took great pains, to do it.

He was quite notorious.

The story brings out the main facts of his life.

He has already made up his rnind.

XXI. Pick out words from the text that have negative prefixes.

XXII. Using prefixes make the following words negative:

happy, possible, legal, loyal, pleasant, patient, obedient, respon­sible

Use each of the words you make in a sentence.

XXIII. Translate into English:

(A) 1. Они долго не могли принять никакого решения. 2. Едва ли им удастся выяснить это. 3. Он пользуется дурной славой. 4. Он предложил своему собеседнику стул. 5. Неизвестно, чем объясняется ее отсутствие. 6. Он обещал отнестись к делу очень серьезно. 7. Они приложили большие усилия, чтобы сгладить неприятное впечатле­ние. 8. Они с восторгом говорили о музыкальной одаренности маль­чика. 9. Взгляни на этот рисунок. 10. В том, что он говорил, было серьезное противоречие. 11. Как только ей сделали укол, она очну­лась.

(B) 1. Вы, должно быть, давно знакомы. 2. Неужели вы давно знаете друг друга? 3. Не может быть, чтобы вы давно знали друг друга. 4. Неужели он действительно интересный собеседник? 5. Он, наверно, очень приятный человек.

6. — Торопишься куда-нибудь?

— Да, на лекцию.

— Но ведь лекция начинается только в 2 часа?

— В два? Нет, ты ошибаешься. Ровно в 1 час 30 минут.

XXIV. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs where nec­essary:

(a) 1. Don't put your nose—other people's affairs. It is none—your business. 2. I really do not know how to account-her absence. 3. She quietly thanked him—his kindness and left the room. 4. The portrait— the newspaper reminded me—one—the friends—my childhood. 5. The tragedy cast a shadow—his early life. 6. I believe we have had quite enough—it—the present. 7. She spoke—the performance—rapture. 8. I could not find the manuscript—my papers. 9. The work consist­ed—reading and translation.

(b) When Samuel was twelve years old, his father died, and the [59] boy was apprenticed—local printers, and then worked as compositor and pressman—his older brother Orion, who managed a not complete­ly successful newspaper—Hannibal. There was room—its pages— humorous features which young Samuel composed and—miscellaneous items which he collected—"Our Assistant's Column".

— the time he was seventeen he was able to think—himself as something more than a local writer.—May 1852 "The Dandy Frighten­ing the Squatter" appeared—the "Carpet-Bag", a sportsman's maga­zine—Boston. It anticipates much—the later manner—Mark Twain and is laid —Hannibal—the Mississippi River.

— eighteen he left little Hannibal—St. Louis, the largest town— Missouri, where he saved his wages carefully until ,he could strike out—the limits—his western state. He traveled first,—steamboat and rail,—Chicago and Buffalo,—New York. (From "Mark Twain" by L. Leary)

XXV. Fill in the blanks with the definite or indefinite article where required:

Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on November 30, 1835, on— Missouri frontier, in stragglirig log village called Florida, to which his parents had come from their former home among—hills of—Ten­nessee. His father was—local magistrate and —small merchant, orig­inally from—Virginia, who had studied—law in Kentucky and there met and married—auburn-haired Jane Lampton, descended from— settlers who had come across—mountains. One among—thousands of Americans who in—early decades of—nineteenth century moved westward to seek—opportunities in—newly opened lands, John Mar­shall Clemens did not prosper in—hamlet in which his third son was born, and so, when Samuel was four years old, moved to—Hannibal,— larger town with—population of almost five hundred, оn—banks of—Mississippi River. (From "Mark Twain" by L. Leary. Abridged.)

XXVI. Retell the story (a) as if you were the newspaper reporter; (b) in your own words.

XXVII. Enact the scene described in the story.

XXVIII. Express your opinion of M. Twain as a humorist in writing. [60]

Lesson 5

^ THE LIGHT THAT FAILED

by Rudyard Kipling (1865—1936)

Rudyard Kipling is a well-known English poet, nov­elist and short-story writer. Kipling's literary "'heritage is marred by crude imperialist tendencies— the glorification of the British empire, the assention of the superiority of the white colonizer over the native of Asia and Afri­ca, the cult of strength and courage. But Kipling is by no means all of a piece. Although reactionary in many of his political opinions, he was nevertheless a piercing critic of the society in which he lived. Everyone knows and loves "The Jungle Book" and the "Just So Stories" written for children with a deep understanding and subtle humour. He often feels for the failures, the underdogs, the men whom life has beaten. It is when he speaks of any true sorrow or misfortune that he becomes a really penerative writer. The present setection is illustrative of all this.

"The Light that Failed" is Kipling's first novel. It be­longs to the early period in his literary career. The nover centres round the tragic fate of the painter Dick Heldar. A gifted artist, he goes blind in the prime of life. When Kipling portrays Dick at the crucial moment of his life, when he speaks of the terrible loneliness Dick faces, he does it with profound intuition and understanding.

Chapter X

Dick sought an oculist, — the best in London. He was certain that the local practitioner* did not know anything about his trade, and more certain that Maisie** would laugh at him if he were forced to wear spectacles.

"I've neglected the warnings of my lord the stomach too long.1 Hence these spots before the eyes, Binkie.*** "I can see as well as I ever could." [61]

As the entered the dark hall that led to the consulting-room a man cannoned against him. Dick saw the face as it hurried out into the street.2

"That's the writer-type. He has the same modeling of the forehead as Torp.* He looks very sick. Probably heard something he didn't like."

Even as he thought, a great fear came upon Dick, a fear that made him hold his breath as he walked into the oculist's waiting-room, with the heavy carved furniture, the dark-green paper, and the sober-hued prints on the wall. He recognized a reproduction of one of his own sketches.

Many people were waiting their turn before him.3 His eye was caught by a flaming red-and-gold Christmas-carol book.** Little child­ren came to that eye-doctor, and they needed larger-type amusement.

"That's idolatrous bad Art," he said, drawing the book towards himself. "From the anatomy of the angels, it has been made in Germany."4 He opened it mechanically, and there leaped to his eyes a verse printed in red ink —

The next good joy that Mary had,

It was the joy of three,

To see her good Son Jesus Christ

Making the blind to see:

Making the blind to see, good Lord,

And happy may we be.

Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost

To all eternity!

Dick read and re-read the verse till his turn came, and the doctor was bending above him in an arm-chair. The blaze of a gas-microscope in his eyes made him vince. The doctor's hand touched the scar of the sword-cut on Dick's head, and Dick explained briefly how he had come by it. When the flame was removed, Dick saw the doctor's face, and the fear came upon him again. The doctor wrapped himself in a mist of words.5 Dick caught allusions "scar", "frontal bone", "optic nerve", "extreme caution', and the "avoidance of mental anxiety". 6

"Verdict?" he said faintly. "My business is painting, and I daren't waste time. What do you make of it?"

Again the whirl of words, but this time they conveyed a meaning.

"Can you give me anything to drink?"

Many sentences were pronounced in that darkened room, and the prisoners often needed cheering.7 Dick found a glass of liqueur brandy in his hand.

"As far as I can gather," he said, coughing above the spirit, "you call it decay of the optic nerve, or something, and therefore hopeless. What is my time-limit, avoiding all strain and worry?" [62]

"Perhaps one year."

"My God! And if I don't take care of myself?"

"I really could not say. One cannot ascertain the exact amount of injury inflicted by the sword-cut.8 The scar is an old one, and— exposure to the strong light of the desert, did you say?—with exces­sive application to fine work? I really could not say."

"I beg your pardon, but it has come without any warning. If you will let me, I'll sit here for a minute, and then I'll go. You have been very good in telling me the truth. Without any warning; without any warning. Thanks."

Dick went into the street, and was rapturously revived by Binkie.9 "We've got it very badly, little dog!10 Just as badly as we can get it. We'll go to the Park to think it out."

They headed for a certain tree that Dick knew well, and they sat down to think, because his legs were trembling under him and there was cold fear at the pit of his stomach.

"How could it have come without any warning? 11 It's as sudden as being shot. It's the living death, Binkie. We're to be shut up in the dark in one year if we're carelul, and we shan't see anybody, and we shall never have anything we want,12 not though we live to be a hundred." Binkie wagged his tail joyously Binkie, we must think. Let's see how it feels to be blind." Dick shut his eyes, and flaming com­mas and Catherine wheels* floated inside the lids. Yet when he looked across the Park the scope of his vision was not contracted. He could see perfectly, until a procession of slow-wheeling fireworks defiled across his eyeballs.

"Little dorglums,** we aren't at all well. Let's go home. If only Torp were back, now!"

COMMENTARY

  1. "I've neglected the warnings of my lord the stomach too long."

The seemingly jocular reference to the stomach shows Dick's desire to cheer himself up, his attempt at putting down his eye trouble to indigestion, at fighting his growing fear.

2. ^ Dick saw the face as it hurried out into the street.

An instance of metonymy can be observed in this sentence (see commentary to Lessons 1 and 2). Speaking of the face that hurried out into the street Kipling means the man whose face really impressed Dick. The use of metonymy here draws attention to the expression of the man's face,.the expression that caught Dick's eye and gave rise to a new wave of fear.

3. ^ Many people were waiting their turn before him.

Note the transitive use of the verb "to wait". This is rather a rare [63] case. Commonly the verb "to wait" is used intransitively with the preposition "for".

4. "That's idolatrous bad Art," he said, drawing the book towards himself. "From the anatomy of the angels, it has been made in Ger­many."

The binding and the illustrations of the Christmas-carol book re­vealed bad taste and God-worship. The manner of painting the bodies of the angels (sentimental and photographic) was that of the German school.

5.^ The doctor wrapped himself in a mist of words...Again the whirl of words...

In these sentences the novelist uses one of the most expressive tropes—a metaphor. It consists in the use of a word or a phrase to describe an object with which it is not commonly associated. This figurative use of a word or a phrase is based on some existing or supposed resemblance. The unusual application of a name or a descriptive term fixes the attention on those characteristics of the object described that are meant to be accentuated.

The metaphor can be expressed by any part of speech.

In the present selection one comes across the metaphorical use of

verbs:

...a man cannoned against him.

The doctor wrapped himself in a mist of words.

and nouns:

f. e. Again the whirl of words... ...a mist of words.

6. "frontal bone", "optic nerve", "mental anxiety"

The introduction of medical terms into the narration creates the atmosphere of a doctor's consulting-room.

7. ^ Many sentences were pronounced in that darkened room, and the prisoners often needed cheering.

Another instance of the metaphorical use of nouns could be ob­served here (sentence, prisoner). These words are commonly associated with the court of justice, not with the doctor's consulting-room. Their use in this context stresses the hopelessness of Dick's position. The word "verdict" used above plays the same role.

8. "One cannot ascertain the exact amount of injury inflicted by the sword-cut."

Note a vast difference in the vocabulary used by the doctor and by Dick. A careful selection of dry unemotional terms characterizes all the doctor's remarks. Professional coolness and indifference of a suc­cessful practitioner are felt beyond his measured speech. It is all the more evident, as contrasted with Dick's informal emotional utter­ances: "Verdict?" "What do you make of it?" etc. [64]

9.^ Dick went into the street, and was rapturously received by Binkie… Binkie wagged his tail joyously.

The enthusiastic way in which the dog met his master only accen­tuates Dick's loneliness. The only living being that was with him at the moment was his dog.

10. "We've got it very badly, little dog!" "We're to be shut up..."

The use of the pronoun "we" is of interest here. Kipling subtly re­flects Dick's attempt to share his tragedy with someone if only a clog.

11. "How could it have come without any warning?"

"Could+Perfect Infinitive" expresses Dick's incredulity, his refusal to believe in the coming blindness.

Note that "could" is used to express doubt, incredulity only in interrogative and negative sentences.

^ 12. "We're to be shut up in the dark... and we shan't see anybody, and we shall never have anything we want..."

We observe here such an arrangement of similarly built clauses (parallel constructions) which is called called climax. It means that each clause (phrase or sentence) is more significant in meaning than the previous one. The stylistic value of this figure of speech is empha­sis. And indeed the emotional tone of this sentence where each clause surpasses the previous one in intensity of expression is suggestive of great nervous strain.

^ DISCUSSION OF THE TEXT
1 ."Speak of the text stating whether it presents an account of events, a description, a dialogue or portraiture. If you find several components, name all of them.

2. In what key is the extract written: is it lyrical, dramatic, pa­thetic, and ironical?

3. Into what parts could it be split? Characterize each.

4. What brought Dick to the oculist? With what feelings did he enter the oculist's waiting room?

5. Note the incongruity between the tragic verdict pronounced on Dick by the oculist and the trifling character of his worries about Maisie's displeasure at his wearing spectacles. Does it stress the finality, the tragedy of his position?

6. Study Dick's remark: "I can see as well as I ever could". What effect does the author achieve by making Dick affirm the very opposite of what he feared might be the truth?

7. How did his collusion with another patient contribute to the growing tension? What figure of speech helps the author achieve it?

8. How could you account for the reiteration of the word "fear" [65] throughout the extract? Pick out all the sentences in which it occurs. Could we call it the key-word of the text under study?

9. List all the artistic devices that help the author create an atmo­sphere of impending tragedy.

10. Speak about Dick. How did he behave at the crucial moment of his life when all his moral powers were put to test? Did he give way to his feelings or did he retain his self-control and dignity despite the terrible shock?

11. What ways of moulding a portrait does Kipling use? Does he resort to direct characterization? How do Dick's conduct and speech characterize his nature?

12. What is the role of the little dog Binkie in the scene discussed? Why did Dick use the pronoun "we" while speaking to the dog? Did it help him fight the coming loneliness of the blind? 13. Study the syntax of the passage beginning with the words "How could it have come without any warning?" What figures of speech are used there? Account for their use.

14. What fills the scene discussed with vitality and dramatic ten­sion?

15. Give a summary of your comments on the text.

^ WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS TO BE MEMORIZED
seek (v) neglect (v) amusement (n) bend (v) wince remove (v)

come upon (on) (v) verdict (n) whirl (n) convey (v) cheer (v) decay (n)

inflict (v) rapturously (adv.) head (for) (v) float (v) vision (n)

to hold one's breath to catch one's eye to leap to one's eyes to come by something

to wrap in a mist of words

to waste time

to pronounce a sentence

EXERCISES
I. Explain and expand on the following:

1. That's the writer-type. He has the same modelling of the forehead as Torp.

2. His eye was caught by a flaming red-and-gold Christmas-carol

book.

3. Little children came to that eye-doctor, and they needed large-type amusement.

4. When the flame was removed, Dick saw the doctor's face, and the fear came upon him again.

5. The doctor wrapped himself in a mist of words.

6. Again the whirl of words, but this time they conveyed a meaning. [66]

7. Many sentences were pronounced in that darkened room, and the prisoners often needed cheering.

8. Dick shut his eyes, and flaming commas and Catherine-wheels floated inside the lids.

II Paraphrase the following sentences from the text:

1. As he entered the dark hall that led to the consulting-room a man cannoned against him.

2. He looks very sick.

3. Even as he thought, a great fear came upon Dick, a fear that made him hold his breath...

4. He opened it (the book) mechanically, and there leaped to his eyes a verse printed in red ink...

5. "Verdict? ... What do you make of it?"

6. They headed for a certain tree that Dick knew well...

III Paraphrase the following sentences using expressions from the text:

1. From what the doctor said Dick understood what awaited him.

2. He walked towards a bench he often sat on.

3. A great fear seized Dick.

4. This fear left him winded.

5. Dick's attention was attracted by a reproduction of one of his own sketches.

6. Dick wanted to know how the doctor diagnosed his case. 7. He explained to the doctor when and where he had been wounded and how he had got the scar of the sword-cut.

8. He asked the oculist to tell him how much time might pass before he went blind.

9. The dog was delighted to see his master.

10. The doctor's words had no meaning for him at first.

IV. Give definitions of the following, words using an English-English dictionary:

allusion, caution, avoidance, anxiety

extreme

rapturously

cannon, wrap, convey

V (a) Give Russian equivalents for the following:

to hold one's breath; to catch one's eye; to.head for a place; to pro­nounce a sentence; to come by something; to wrap oneself in a mist of words; to look sick; to cannon against (with) someone; to leap to one's eyes; to waste time

(b) Translate the sentences containing the above expressions into Russian. [67]

VI. Give corresponding colloquial variants for the following:

1. One cannot ascertain the exact amount of injury inflicted by the sword-cut. 2. The scar is an old one, and — exposure to the strong light of the desert... — with excessive application to fine work might soon ruin your sight.

VII. Give English equivalents for the following:

напрасно тратить время; быть уверенным; затаить дыхание; страх овладел им; привлечь внимание; говорить правду; выносить приговор; направляться к какому-либо месту; встречать востор­женно

VIII. Make up situations round the following expressions:

to feel fear at the pit of one's stomach; to hold one's breath; to catch one's eye; to head for; to pronounce a sentence

IX. Recast the following sentences so as to use "could+Perfect infinitive" to express doubt, incredulity. Model: Is it possible that it has come so unexpectedly? Could it have come so unexpectedly?

1. Is it possible that such a tasteless picture caught your eye? 2. I don't believe that he ever felt fear. 3. Is it at all likely that the local physician gave him the necessary treatment?

X. Supply the missing line of each dialogue using "could +Perfect infinitive".

Model: Fear made me speechless when I walked into the doctor's consulting-room. How could you have given way to it?

1. A. He has neglected his health for so long as to become quite a wreck.

B....

2. A. He would not consult an oculist even when he had serious eye-trouble.

B....

3. A. A man cannoned against him without so much as saying "Sorry".

B…

XI. Make up several two-line dialogues using the model of exercise X.

XII. Complete the sentences given below following the model. "Will" should be used in the conditional clause to express volition. Give as many variants as possible.

Model: I shall be very glad if you will come to tea. 1. We'll (shall) be very grateful to you if... 2. I'll stay here for a short while if... 3. He'll go out for a breath of fresh air if... 4. You won't be sick much longer if... [68]

XIII. Pattern your own sentences after this one: If you will let me, I'll sit here for a minute.

XIV. Read the following compound nouns and adjectives with the proper stress. Remember that compound nouns are accented on the first element whereas compound adjectives are double stressed. Give an appropriate definition for each of them.

a) Waiting-room; drawing-room; consulting-room; eye-doctor; gas-microscope; sword-cut; writer-type; time-limit

b) Dark-green; grey-green; sober-hued; bad-tempered; easy-going; light-haired; old-fashioned

XV. Recast the following sentences so as to use compound adjectives instead of the italicized words:

1. The foliage in the park was still of green colour. 2. Sober hues prevailed in the picture. 3. There were heavy curtains on the consul­ting-room windows. 4. There was a deep scar on his head. 5. The oculist . was a man with grey hair.

XVI. Recast the following sentences substituting the parts of speech indicated in brackets for the italicized words.. Make necessary changes:

1. He looks very sick. (noun). 2. Dick held his breath as he walked into the oculist's waiting-room, (verb). 3. His eye was fixed on the doctor. (verb). 4, Dick asked to give him something to drink, (noun). 5. He touched the dog's head lightly, (noun). 6. His head was cut by a sword, (noun). 7. Dick explained briefly how he had come by the sword-cut, (noun). 8. He saw the doctor's face again when the flame was removed, (noun). 9. The doctor recommended Dick to try and avoid all worry, (verb).

XVII. Translate into English:

"(A) 1. Дик направился к тому месту парка, которое он больше всего любил. 2. Его охватил страх, когда он почувствовал, что остался один. 3. Яркий свет заставил его вздрогнуть. 4. Он затаил дыхание, входя в кабинет врача. 5. Его внимание привлекла висев­шая на стене репродукция. 6. Он не обращал внимания на свое здоровье. 7. Эти строчки бросились ему в глаза, как только он открыл книгу. 8. В дверях он столкнулся с человеком, который, по-видимому, очень торопился. 9. Наконец подошла его очередь.

(В) 1. Мы будем очень рады, если вы поедете с нами. 2. Если позволите, я посижу здесь и почитаю. 3. Как это могло случиться? Неужели это случилось так неожиданно? 4. Как можно было так относиться к своему здоровью? 5. Возможно ли, что он ослеп? XVIII. Insert the proper prepositions or adverbs:

(a) 1. Dick never took any care—his health. He gave himself en­tirely—work. 2. He gathered—what the doctor told him that he was [69] doomed to go blind. 3. He hurried——the doctor's consulting-room wrapped—a desire to get——the people. 4. He cannoned—another patient—the way out. 5. He felt he had to sit—for his legs were tremb­ling—him. A cold fear came—him. 6. As the doctor bent—him Dick felt fear—the pit—his stomach. 7. He longed—his friend to come before he was shut up—the lonely darkness. 8. Dick and his dog head­ed—a place he had long known. 9. He had been waiting—his turn—no less than an hour before he was invited to come in.

(b) Maisie watched him, and the fear went——her heart, to be fol­lowed—a very bitter shame. He had spoken a truth that had been hid­den—the girl—every step of the impetuous flight—London; for he was, indeed, down and done for, masterful no longer, but rather a little abject; neither an artist stronger than she, nor a man to be looked up—,only some blind one that sat—a chair and seemed—the point-crying. She was immensely and unfeignedly sorry—him, more sorry than she had ever been—any one—her life, but not sorry enough to deny his words. So she stood still and felt ashamed and a little hurt...; and now she was only filled—pity most startlingly distinct - love. (From "The Light That Failed" by R. Kipling. Abridged )

XIX. Fill in the blanks with the definite or indefinite article where required:

"I'll go to sleep.—room's very dark. Let's light—lamp and see how the "Melancholia"* looks. There ought to have been—moon."

It was then that Torpenhow heard his name called by—voice that he did not know, in—rattling accents of—deadly fear.

"He's looked at—picture," was his first thought, as he hurried into—bedroom and found Dick sitting up and beating—air with his hands.

"Torp! Torp! Where are you? For pity's sake, come to me!"

"What's the matter?"

Dick clutched at his shoulder. "Matter! I've been lying here for— hours in—dark, and you never heard me. Torp, old man, don't go away. I'm all in—dark. In—dark, I tell you!"

Torpenhow held—candle within—foot of—Dick's eyes, but there was no light in those eyes. He lit—gas, and Dick heard—flame catch.— grip of his fingers on Torpenhow's shoulder made Torpenhow wince.

(From "The Light That Failed" by R. Kipling)

XX. Retell the scene described in the extract.

XXI. Dramatize the scene.

XXII. Write a brief summary of the extract.

XXIII. Write a letter from Dick to Maisie about his visit to the eye-doctor. [70]

Lesson 6


^ HEARTBREAK HOUSE

by George Bernard Shaw (1856—1950)

"Heartbreak House" is one of the best plays of the greatest English satirical dramatist. The long list of his plays opens with the cycle of the Unpleasant Plays (1892), which marked the beginning of a new period in the history of English drama. G. B. Shaw revolutionized English drama in content and form. His plays are problem plays and discussion plays, where he raises the most urgent problems of his time. He exposes the vices of the society he lives in and condemns the hypocrisy of bourgeois morality, bring­ing to ridicule its false ideals of sham Christianity, sham virtue, sham patriotism, sham rorriance. The playwright rejects the art-for-art's-sake formula; with Bernard Shaw art exists only for life's sake.

G. B. Shaw's artistic method is scathing satire, and his favourite device is paradox which is a statement or a situation that at first sight seems absurd and contrary to accepted ideas. However, paradoxes of B. Shaw are always well-founded and help him reveal contradictory and incongruous sides of life. Bernard Shaw is a brilliant master of dialogue and monologue; as one of his critics puts it, "his words are always easy~on the actors' tongues, and therefore on the listeners' ears also".

"Heartbreak House" (1913—1919) was written during World War I. Shaw himself highly appreciated the play, and in his preface to it he disclosed the symbolic meaning of the title. "Heartbreak House", he wrote in his preface to the play, "is cultured, leisured Europe before the war". In the subtitle he called the play "A fantasia in the Rus­sian manner on English theme", thus acknowledging his relationship to Russian literature, especially to Chekhov, whose "intensely Russian plays fitted all the country-houses in Europe... The same nice people, the same fu­tility". Shaw sympathized with these people for their culture, sincerity, disgust for business, and at the same time he accused them of idleness, of hatred for politics, of being "helpless wasters of their inheritance like the people of Chekhov's "Cherry Orchard". [71]

The excerpt below presents the most essential part of the conversation between Ellie Dunn and Alfred Mangan, guests at Heartbreak House. The conversation opens the second act of the play. In the first act we are witnesses of how Ellie's heart is broken: the man she has romantically loved turns out to be a shallow story-teller, a petty deceiver.

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